Words of History
“ Before you learn something about technology . Get used to know the background , history , and who have found ? which has to create, build , develop a technology itself . Maybe they are just one person , it may be a group , or maybe a larger organization , or it could include a country larger ” .
The very first device that had fundamentally the same functionality as a router does today was the Interface Message Processor (IMP); IMPs were the devices that made up the ARPANET, the first packet network. The idea for a router (called "gateways" at the time) initially came about through an international group of computer networking researchers called the International Network Working Group (INWG). Set up in 1972 as an informal group to consider the technical issues involved in connecting different networks, later that year it became a subcommittee of the International Federation for Information Processing. These devices were different from most previous packet networks in two ways. First, they connected dissimilar kinds of networks, such asserial lines and local area networks. Second, they were connectionless devices, which had no role in assuring that traffic was delivered reliably, leaving that entirely to the hosts (this particular idea had been previously pioneered in the CYCLADES network).
The idea was explored in more detail, with the intention to produce a prototype system, as part of two contemporaneous programs. One was the initial DARPA-initiated program, which created the TCP/IP architecture in use today.
Source from wikipedia.
What is a Router & Gateway ?Router Definition
The router is a computer networking hardware that can be used to connect multiple networks of the same or different. A router is a device to transmit data packets over a network or the Internet.
A router is a device that sends data packets through a network or the Internet to the destination , through a process known as routing . The routing process occurs at layer 3 ( network layer such as Internet Protocol) of the seven layer OSI protocol stack .
Router Definition By Wikipedia
A router[a] is a networking device that forwards data packets between computer networks. Routers perform the traffic directing functions on the Internet. A data packet is typically forwarded from one router to another through the networks that constitute the internetwork until it reaches its destination node.
A router is connected to two or more data lines from different networks (as opposed to a network switch, which connects data lines from one single network). When a data packet comes in on one of the lines, the router reads the address information in the packet to determine its ultimate destination. Then, using information in its routing table or routing policy, it directs the packet to the next network on its journey. This creates an overlay internetwork.
The most familiar type of routers are home and small office routers that simply pass data, such as web pages, email, IM, and videos between the home computers and the Internet. An example of a router would be the owner's cable or DSL router, which connects to the Internet through an ISP. More sophisticated routers, such as enterprise routers, connect large business or ISP networks up to the powerfulcore routers that forward data at high speed along the optical fiber lines of the Internet backbone. Though routers are typically dedicated hardware devices, use of software-based routers has grown increasingly common.
And what is a Router Exactly ?
Simple definition Router : A device to transmit the data packets over a network or the Internet.
Simple definition Routing : process sending data packets over a network or the Internet to the destination.
Routing is the process by which an item can get to the destination from one location to another . Some examples of items that can be routed : mail , phone calls , and data. Within the network, the router is a device used to perform traffic routing .
The basic concepts of routing
Whereas in the WAN network we often know the name TCP / IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) addresses so that the delivery of data packets can get to the destination address ( destination host ) . TCP / IP divides masingmulai respective duties of the reception of data packets until transmission of data packets in the system so that if there is a problem in the delivery of data packets can be solved well . Based on the routing of data packet transmission routing can be divided into direct and indirect routing .
Direct Routing is an addressing directly toward the destination address without going through another host . Example : a computer with an address of 192.168.1.2 sends the data to a computer with the address 192.168.1.3
Indirect Routing is an addressing that need through the address of another host before heading hort address of the destination . ( Example : a computer with the address 192.168.1.2 sends data to a computer with 192.1681.3 address , but before heading to the computer with the address 192.168.1.3 , the data is sent in advance by the host with the address 192.168.1.5 and then proceed to the address of the destination host .
Type Configuration Routing
1. Minimal Routing is a routing process is simple and usually only local use only.
2. Static Routing , built on a network that has a lot of gateways . This type of network only allows for a small and stable .
3. Dynamic Routing , typically used on a network that has more than one route . Dynamic routing requires a routing protocol to create routing tables that can take a computer resource .
Router or other devices that can perform routing functions, require the following information:
* Destination Address / Destination Address - Interest or address of the item to be routed
* Know the resources - From the source (other routers) that can be learned by the router and provide the path to the destination.
* Find the route - The route or path which may be taken to their destinations.
* Route selection - The best route taken to a destination.
* Maintain routing information - A way to keep the path to a destination that is already known and the most frequently traveled.
A router learn the routing information of the source and purpose which is then placed in the routing table. Router will be based on this table, to tell the port to be used to forward packets to the destination address.
If the destination network, directly connected (directly connected) in the router, the router is instantly know which ports are to be used to forward packets.
If the destination network is not directly connected in the body of the router, the router must learn the best route that will be used to forward packets. This information can be studied by means of:
1. Manual by "network administrator"
2. Collecting information through the dynamic processes in the network.
Static and Dynamic Know These
There are two ways to tell the router how to forward packets to a network that is not connected directly (not directly connected) on the router body.
Two methods for studying the routes through the network are:
Static routes - routes learned by the router when an administrator establish a route manually. Administrators must renew or update this static route manually when a topology change between networks (internetwork).
Dynamic routes - Dynamic routes are learned by the router as an administrator to configure a routing protocol that helps determine the route. Unlike a static route, the route Dynamic, once a network administrator to enable Dynamic service, then the service will be known and updated automatically by a routing process when the network topology changes received from "internetwork".
Routers main function is to divide or distribute an IP address, either static or DHCP or Dynamic Host Configuration Procotol to all computers connected to the router. With the unique IP address of the router that is distributed to each computer can allow any computer to connect and communicate, be it on a LAN or the Internet. At this time, the router device is more sophisticated and modern. To distribute IP addresses to each computer on a network, the router function not only can only connect with a LAN cable connection, but can with wireless technology. Thus, the router at this time can be connected to any computer, laptop, gadgets, smartphones are in range of the router. Simply by utilizing a radio wave emitted by the router. That is the function of the route
Router General Functions
The router function in a general sense is a router function connects the computer to the Computer and other hardware . Because this router serves as the interface for sharing information , the router is used in computer networks
Router Specifically Function
Specifically the function of a router is to direct data packets to a specific location or information from one network to another. When a data packet is sent from the network, the router is useful to direct to the necessary location via the best route for transferring specific data. The router determines the best route with the help of forwarding tables, headers and protocols such as Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP).
in carrying out its functions, the Router uses RJ45 type connection to connect it to a computer. The main function of a router is to forward the signal from computer to computer so as not to convert the signal. Another function of the router is a security tools such as firewalls are implemented through a router. Nor should the router connected to the internet. But it must play its obligation to build wireless access to the Internet. Use of other important router is to connect two or more computers to a single Internet connection.
A broadband connection also need a router function is to convey information to the user's computer. The function of the router here is to collect data that comes through a broadband signal and transmits it to a computer via the best route, so the time for da ta transfer dimimalkan. Now you know how a router in connecting various networks in a single loop. let's look at the types of routers are available for use.
How it Works Router?
The workings of the router . Router bekera by way of routing a packet or data called the routing information . With the routing technique , the router can know the direction of travel information service that will be addressed , whether it be on the same network or different . If the information is intended to lead to a different network , the router will forward it to the network , otherwise if the packet destination is the same network , the router will block out the packet and forwards the packet to the routing in the same network sampa sent to the destination . The following illustration of how the router .
The workings of the router can be seen in the image above. In the picture above there are two network that is connected to a router . Network located on the left side which is connected to port 1 routers have the address 192.168.1.0 and the network the right which is connected to port 2 router has the address 220.127.116.11 .
Computer A sends the data to a computer C , the router will not forward the data to the other network .
So, when when computer F sends the data to a computer E , the router will not forward the data packets to another network .
It was only when the computer F sends the data to a computer B , the router will forward data packets to a computer B.
Type Router, Advantages and Disadvantages Router
There are three types of routers commonly used in computer networks, namely:
Router PC is a computer with an operating system that has the facility to divide and to share IP Address. Network devices (PCs) connected to a computer will be able to enjoy IP Address or Internet connection is shared by the operating system. Examples of operating systems that can be used are all operating systems based on client-server, such as Windows NT, Windows NT 4.0, Windows 2000 server, Windows 2003 Server, MikroTik (based on Linux), and others.
Router applications are applications that can be installed on the operating system so that the operating system will have the ability as a router. Examples of this application is WinRoute, WinGate, SpyGate, and WinProxy.
Router hardware is hardware that has the capability of hardware such as routers so that they can emit or share IP Address and to sharing IP Address. In practice router hardware used to share the internet connection in a room or area. Examples of this router is a router manufactured like Cisco and Planet.
Advantages of Using Router
The advantage gained by using a router on the network are:
Isolation broadcast traffic. These capabilities reduce the network load for this type of traffic can be isolated in a LAN only.
Flexibility. The router can be used on any network topology and insensitive to the problem of time lag.
Setting priorities. Routers can implement priority regulatory mechanisms between protocols.
The configuration settings. Routers generally be more configurable than the bridge.
Insulation problem. Routers form a barrier between the LAN and allows problems that occur isolated on the LAN.
Path selection. Routers are generally smarter than the bridge and can determine the optimal path between two systems.
Disadvantages of Using Router
Disadvantages gained by using a router is:
Depending on the protocol. A router that operates at the network layer of the OSI only able to pass traffic that is in accordance with the protocol implemented.Cost. Routers are generally more complex and more expensive than the bridge. Processing overhead on the larger router so that the resulting throughput may be lower than the bridge.
The allocation of addresses. In internetwork using the router, move a machine from one LAN to another LAN network means changing the address on the system.
System unattainable. The use of static routing table causing some systems can be affordable by any other system.
What is a Gateway ?
Gateway Definition by Wikipedia
Gateway Network gateway ( English: gateway ) is a device used to connect a computer network with one or more computer networks that use different communication rules so that information from one computer networks can dialirhantarkan network to another computer with a different network rules . The meaning is the meaning of the term main network gateway . Increasingly popular Internet , network gateway cognition are often shifted . Many beginners equate " network gateway " with " router " ( router ) that is not true .
Sometimes , the word used to describe the network gateway device that connects a large computer network with other large computer networks . This occurs because the rules are often differences in the computer network communication occurs only at the level of large computer network .
The term gateway refers to hardware or software that bridges the two applications or networks that are not compatible, so data can be transferred between different computers . One example of the use of an email gateway , so that the email exchange can be done on a different system . The hosts used to redirect network traffic from one network to another , it is also used to pass network traffic from one protocol to another protocol . Used to connect two types of computer networks whose architecture is completely different . So the gateway is more complex than the bridge .
Gateway can be applied among others to connect IBM SNA with digital DNA, LAN (Local Area Network) and WAN (Wide Area Network). One function is to perform protocol gateway POKO converting, so that two different computer network architecture can communicate. Gateway can also be interpreted as a computer that has a minimum of two pieces of network interface for connecting two or more pieces of the network. An address on the Internet can be reached through the gateway-gateway are on the road / route toward which must be passed so that the data packet to its destination. Most gateways running a routing daemon (a program that dynamically updating routing tables). Because it is also usually serves as a gateway router. Gateway / router to router-shaped box as in the production of Cisco, 3COM, etc. or it could be either a computer running Network Operating System plus routing daemon. Suppose PC installed FreeBSD Unix and run programs or Gated Routed. However, in the use natd, routing daemon does not need to be run, so quite fitted gateway alone.
Gateway is a device used to connect a computer network with one or more computer networks that use different communications protocols so that information from a computer network can be given to any other computer networks of different protocol .
A more general sense of this term is a mechanism that provides access to another system the connected in a network . The hosts used to redirect network traffic from one network to another , it is also used to pass network traffic from one protocol to another protocol . Used to connect two types of computer networks whose architecture is completely different . So the gateway is more complex than the bridge . Gateway can be applied among others to connect IBM SNA with digital DNA , LAN (Local Area Network ) and WAN ( Wide Area Network )
Along with the proliferation of the Internet , the definition of gateway is often shifted. Not infrequently beginners equate " gateway" to the " router " that is actually not true . Sometimes , the word " gateway " is used to mean a device that connects a large computer network with other large computer networks . This arises because often the difference in computer network communication protocol only occur at the level of large computer network . Gateway can also be interpreted as a computer that has a minimum of two pieces of network interface for connecting two or more pieces of the network .
An address on the Internet can be reached through the gateway are on the road / route toward which must be passed so that the data packet to its destination. Most gateways running a routing daemon ( a program that dynamically updating routing tables ) . Because it is also usually serves as a gateway router. Gateway / router to router -shaped box as in the production of Cisco , 3COM , etc. or it could be either a computer running Network Operating System plus routing daemon . Suppose PC installed FreeBSD Unix and run programs or Gated Routed . However, in the use natd , routing daemon does not need to be run , so quite fitted gateway alone . Because the gateway / router manages traffic data packets between networks , then it can be fitted capping mechanism or security ( filtering ) of data packets , this mechanism is called a firewall .
One of the main functions of converting protocol gateway is doing , so that two different computer network architecture can communicate with each other .
What is the difference between the gateway and router?
Although the two gateway routers are used to manage network traffic between two or more networks are separate, they act on different levels. Thus, the gateway for managing traffic between two separate networks, while routers manage traffic between the same network. Routers are configured by defining their routing tables while Gateways are configured by defining what is considered an internal network and what is perceived externally. [On the one hand, while the routers send data to a specific location by address to segment the network, Gateways play the role of network point that acts as a gateway to another network.
On the other hand, often associated with the gateway router as the router knows where to direct data that arrives at the gate. A gateway is a point of access to a computer outside the network. Depending on the complexity of the network, the gateway can only be one or several as they provide in and out points like the door of the house. Routers, on the other hand, determines the shortest possible path data can travel between two computers.
Routers are devices that need to be secured from being flooded with too much data and network traffic and exit and entry point into the network, the gateway server and the equipment should be secured from viruses, because anything that passes through the gateway can access the internal network. Router dividing the network into segments and thus allow only traffic that is specifically targeted to different segments running on the router.
This system is really useful in most of the network spread. A gateway on the other side to join a different system. In addition, the task seems intelligent gateway 'which is much more complex than a normal router. Therefore, it is clear that both gateways and routers needed to build a good network.
Gateway is the door to other networks , while routers work as a mode of transport for data packets. Router dividing the network into multiple segments , thereby reducing traffic .
Gateway is the risk of virus attacks , because anything that passes through the network can access the internal network .
Gateway always have a router and it is a router , the network decided to skip his data .